The use of Antibiotic in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Maternity and Children Hospital in Makkah


  • Ghada Ahmad Aladwani Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
  • Waad Saleh Alotaibi Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
  • Tiaf Mussad Alharbi Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
  • Mohammed Alsulimani Pharmacy Services Department, Maternity and Children Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • Yosra Alhindi Associate professor, Department of pharmacology and toxicology, College of medicine, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • Deena Bukhary Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia


Keywords: Antibiotic, Prevalence, Neonate, Intensive Care Unit, Saudi Arabia


Background: Antibiotics can be universally perceived as medicine that adequately controls infectious diseases that genuinely revolutionized health care. Since the discovery of penicillin, the use of antibiotics has significant increased among medical and dental fields. Taking into consideration the increasing prescription of antibiotics will increase resistance leading to a global problem that is a huge concern. The aim of study was to investigate the use of antibiotics at the Maternity and Children Hospital in Makkah within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the Maternity and Children Hospital (MACH), Makkah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2019 until December 2021 in the NICU. All neonates born and admitted to the NICU between 2019-2021 with the following parameters: antibiotic usage and diagnosed with infectious disease were included in this study. The data were collected manually using Microsoft Excel form and presented as demographics data: gender, diagnosis, antibiotics used doses and dosage form.

Results: All patients (1968) who were admitted to the NICU from January 2019 until December 2021 and received parenteral antibiotics were included in this study, males 57% and 42% females. The most used antibiotic classes were Aminoglycoside (36.4%), Penicillin (31.7%), and Glycopeptide (12.2%). In addition, the most frequently administered medications have been as follows: Gentamicin, given in three doses (2 mg/mL, 20 mg/2 mL, and 80 mg/2 mL); followed by Ampicillin, administered in two doses (500 mg/vial and 1 gm/vial); and then Vancomycin, given in two doses (5 mg/mL and 500 mg/vial). While the most used in a combined form were Gentamicin and Ampicillin.

Conclusion: the most frequently used medication in NICU was Gentamicin alone or in combination with another antibiotic. Knowing the antibiotics used will allow the hospital to tackle the infectious disease among premature and newly born infants. Therefore, implementing programs to address the excessive usage of antibiotics such as stewardship programs.


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How to Cite

Aladwani , G., Alotaibi , W., Alharbi, T., Alsulimani , M. ., Alhindi, Y., & Bukhary, D. . (2024). The use of Antibiotic in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Maternity and Children Hospital in Makkah. Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries, 18(01). Retrieved from



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