Current Concepts of Myopia, Etiology, and Recent Treatments in Saudi Arabia
Keywords:Myopia, Refractive error, etiology, prevalence, risk factors, Saudi Arabia
Myopia is vision focusing error that makes distant objects blurred and poses alarming signs for further ocular complications such as retinal changes, corneal macular degeneration, and some other ocular defects. The eyeball's size and axial length may increase as myopia progresses, reducing retinal and scleral thickness. This study has focused on the etiology and risk factors related to myopia and the recent treatment strategies to overcome myopia in SA. The prevalence of myopia in Saudi Arabia (SA) is increasing day by day in children. In addition, the parents are not aware of the complications and knowledge about myopia. Myopia is classified into syndromic and non-syndromic, malignant and alternative, axial and refractive, and congenital and adult myopia based on genetics, pathology, anatomical features, and age respectively. Various factors are responsible for the prevalence of myopia, such as race, age, gender, heredity, and environmental factors. However, indoor activities such as reading books, studying under LED lamps, utilizing dim lights, display of TV, LCD, using computers, mobile phones, and video gaming are the significant factors responsible for myopia development. Early detection and screening methods in schools and hospitals helped diagnose vision problems and detect eye diseases. Various studies were conducted in different regions of SA that were helpful in the early diagnosis of ocular defects such as hyperopia, myopia, and other optic complications. Some standard methods for treating myopia in SA are using spectacles with single-vision lenses, multi-focal soft lenses, and progressive lenses. In contrast, pharmaceutical interventions such as atropine drops are frequently used to prevent myopia. Surgical interventions such as laser vision corrected (LVC) surgery, laser in situ keratomileusis, and photo-refractive keratectomy (PRK) surgeries are safe and effective treatment methods for curing myopia. Early screening programs, parents' training, awareness day, advertisement on social media, and outdoor activities are necessary for the prevention of myopia and its related ocular defects. This study also indicated that there is little knowledge of myopia among the general people in SA. Therefore, to reach a larger audience, more effort is required. Parental knowledge of eye conditions and RE could be increased with the use of more public information campaigns, media advertisements, and awareness days
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